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Ngliyep beach


Ngliyep beach has beautiful rocky beach at the southern part of Malang Regency, where gigantic waves meet coral reef. In addition, it has an island with a lush green tropical shore-forest giving more enchantment to the beach. This beach is provided with some facilities such as: stalls, souvenir shop, inns, etc.

Annually the traditional ceremony Labuhan Mulud (offering ceremony) is held here. Labuhan Mulud is the traditional ceremony that always held in the beach at Malang regency.

Ngliyep beach lies at Kedungsalam village, Donomulyo district, about 62 km a way to the south from Malang, East Java, Indonesia. Visit Ngliyep beach and enjoy its wonderful waves. The visitors can swimming, sun banthing, or fishing here.

For more information that you need, feel free to contact me in honglan712@yahoo.com  or join to my facebook account rttmalang@gmail.com under name Ruth Chandra

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Nikmat membawa maut bab 6 kelas 11


A young woman and man embracing while outdoors.

Image via Wikipedia

Basic competencies:

Brought Christian values in interpersonal relationships and social

Indicators:

1) Using Christian values as the basis for inter-personal and social relationships

2) Identify the challenges and opportunities in realizing the Christian values on interpersonal relationships and social (drugs, free sex, abortion)

Introduction

In the previous chapter the students have learned about Christian values, ie values that are derived from the Bible to regulate behavior and underlie all life. Students also learn about the association.

In this chapter students will learn how to use Christian values as a basis for personal and social interaction. This is necessary, because as a Christian teenager is not possible to isolate himself to the social circle of Christians only, without going to mingle in society. On the other hand, association in a pluralistic society with the influence of global culture, face various challenges and risks losing identity as a Christian teen. So here the students need to learn to understand the signs of Scripture in personal and social interaction.

This time, through several cases, students will learn how to behave and by applying the norms of the Bible as a guide in the mix.

Relationships Without Status / Friends Will Be

What is the basis we get along in society? With whom we interact? How should we hang out? RELATED Without Status (HTS), this term has become a lifestyle for a few people. Even for Rian (27), the relationship is legitimate. “That relationship is exciting, because it is not tied to anything.” For him, the HTS is a friendship that begins with the consciousness to enjoy each other a sense of togetherness. “I do it, because I have not been to her commitment. No one can expect from me. I do not have anything I can give to my partner, for now, “so the recognition of Rian. While the password is groundless, “The absence of courage to reveal the heart honesty, that’s the reason why hubu with it happening without a clear status.”
But on the other hand Vanda commented, “For a long time we were close friends, but no clarity. He makes me confused. There are things that are very personal he’s entered, it really makes me feel very comfortable with it. But on the other hand, there is no commitment whatsoever. I am afraid of losing him, but I-was unable to demand more. “
Rian, Sandy, and Vanda gives an idea of something going on behind the HTS. There are benefited and some harmed. HTS is the relationship between men and women who are very intimate, closer than a friend, but there is no clear recognition. HTS, there are only elements of passion or lust in it, but not clearly intimacy and commitment or bonding.

Impact of HTS
The lack of certainty of the relationship, can create resentment, and even the occurrence of separation, is the impact of HTS. Sense of comfort and love are always in tandem with the togetherness. The moments that can make happy, when the taste was diresponi with attention and positive response. Togetherness continues to be built in proximity which brings love, a sense of mutual need and mutual sharing. But nothing more. When there is a chance to find someone else, who can fill the hopes and expectations of themselves, so together they can change direction without having to feel guilty. Not surprisingly, the first contact ends without a trace and explanation whatsoever. All can be ended because there are no ties whatsoever. In this case, women often become victims.

Irresponsible
There are several factors that caused the HTS. It all started from the closeness and togetherness. Build a sense of comfort. But courage is committed hard to do, merely enjoying the sheer pleasure. Indeed, a healthy relationship requires an assurance of commitment. Due to such relationships, male partners can leave a lady friend whenever he likes. Can not demand more on their partner to do things. Included also when the he would prefer someone else as a sweetheart, you have to accept the decision with the roomy chest.
There are three important elements that must be built in building relationship. Indeed is the intimacy, passion, and commitment. So HTS is a relationship that can not be held responsible, because the loss of commitment there. What’s the difference HTS with TTM (but intimate friends)? was the same: the closeness and intimacy without a confession and commitment. Hurt and disappointment always followed at the end of the story. Because one party will walk without a load.
For young people, the world is full of dynamic association, and expression of a smoldering young. But hopefully it brings us in motion a positive influence. Responsibility is a commitment that should embrace. So the relationship on the foundation of responsibility, rather than pleasure and self satisfaction.
Congratulations to build and improve relationships. If until now your relationship is unclear, fix it and explain again the purpose of that relationship. And for those who will build relationships, Lift is the responsibility of loving and has a definite purpose. True relationship can not only be mutually beneficial, but equally do what is right, with positive impact for the couple and the environment.

Activity 1:

1. Read the material about TTS

2. Define What is love? Write down on paper pieces had been distributed. Can reference from TV, Movie, Songs, etc..

3. Compare with 1 Corinthians 13:4-7, what the media teaches about love and how it differs from the teachings of God?

4. Word of God states in choosing a partner should be a believer. 2 Corinthians 6:14 – “Why did God forbid we are not paired with faith? If so whether he is a Christian origin is enough? What is the purpose of dating for Christians? If so, what are the things to consider in choosing a boyfriend and dating? Up to where the boundaries should and should not be in dating? What are the main criteria in choosing a boyfriend? Does it keep the sanctity of life in terms of women’s sexual affairs only be right? Why are more contentious issues virginity virginity while ignored in society? How is the attitude that should be (Hebrews 13:4 a)

5. Gen 1-2 depict human beings, men and women are created equal in God’s eyes. God created Eve as a balanced and regarding to partner for Adam. God also created institutions that eprtama wedding in the garden of Eden. God created sex as something beautiful and noble to be enjoyed in a blessed marriage institution. Should therefore sex is something sacred and legitimate only in the institution of marriage. Before the Fall, Adam and Eve’s relationship is a relationship blessed by God, without shame and remorse. Sin makes men and women accusing each other, blame, suspicion, shame and fear. Sexual intercourse should be based not only on the ‘feeling of momentary overflow’ but on trust and commitment. Sex is not just a momentary act of sex alone, but a statement of unity, loyalty and let go of self-interest. Having sex before marriage, just based on trust without a commitment, and the base is very fragile. Having sex outside of marriage is unprotected sex. Thus, the problem of loyalty into something that can not be relied upon. Violation of sexual sin always brings an adverse psychological impact and damage the human relationship with themselves, with pasangannyanya and with God.

6. Are you sure that your partner is now is what will surely be with you in a chair alongside the bride? What are the reasons? If so, whether the act of ‘stealing start’ in terms of sexual relations before marriage is an act that can be justified and responsible? What luck to lose?

People always say that by doing ‘ML’ will create closer emotional relationship. That is true. Because God does create such. Even 1 Cor 6:16 says, when someone is having sex with a prostitute, she has become one with the whore. Sex unites two human emotion and spirit. Paul Francis said ‘There’s something mystical about the sexual union, something that lock the two body and soul together. There is something of you that are staying together with him. Part of you that you can not take back.

Friendship with friends kind of just could tie a person’s emotions (eg David and Jonathan, 1 Sam 18:1), even more so when someone involved in sex with their partner. So when one leaves a spouse, that created a broken heart, because they have been brought together as two of paper held together with glue, when there is unity of effort to release it with a tear, it will damage both sides and one of the paper was still left on the Another paper, and vice versa.

Premarital sex consequences:

  1. Loss of integrity as a person
  2. The tendency to repeat again
  3. Increased tolerance of sin

7. Weddings Jewish initially marked by slaughter of sheep during the wedding took place, which is shared between the two families are united. Shows not only the unity of marriage two persons, but also two families. Marriage is not just two people uniting as one, but two families as one in which the form of mutual trust and commitment, but no longer two families became one family who look after each other and support each other. If so, should get the blessing of the family dating? Whether HTS, TTM and sex outside of marriage is an act of respect and maintain the family name?

Activity 2:

How is the case with cigarettes and shisha?

SMOKE billowed in the room smells a wide spread of fruits and flowers. That’s the typical cigarette Arab, or better known as “shisha”. This trend began springing up in some cafe or restaurant in Jakarta. Devotees, who else if not a young man who was always fond of new things, which is not necessarily good for their health.
A young woman enjoying a shisha dang, said, “smoke is more and taste. There is a fitting exclamation ngisep sensation, I know not bernikotin so not bad for your health. “ The girl named Amelya, shisha lovers since grade 3 junior. Unlike the air-Richal masem face, such as holding something. When asked about the shisha, Richal argued, “I can not stand the smoke, just because of invited friends, then her I was here”.

What is shisha?
Shisha is tobacco smoke kegia-tan-you Arab with a pe-set of which consists of pipe-but-ordinary FITNESS hookah or bong-bung-a tersam with a long hose. The working principle is: tobacco DIPA-heated and produces steam which is then filtered before it is inhaled. In addition to hookah, shisha raw materials made from tobacco.
Now there are about 30 flavor tobacco-you, ranging from fruits, brown, vanilla, and much more. Shisha tobacco they contain only a maximum of 0.05 percent nicotine and 0 percent tar. Shisha is the traditional cigarette in the Middle East Peninsula, which uses fruit extract burned tobacco substitutes that use the coal. The process uses water as a filter to minimize the level of nicotine that enters the body.
According to the research, a society that cigarette smoking herbal tobacco shisha or at risk of elevated levels of kar-bon monoxide in the body. This is because, in one session of shisha smoke cigarettes have a tendency to 4-5 times higher content of carbon monoxide in the body than when smoking a cigarette tobacco.
High levels of carbon-sida monok later potentially cause brain damage and unconscious condition. British Health Department said, so it is difficult to know how much carbon monoxide is produced from a cigarette to be distinguished from ordinary tobacco. But gauge levels of carbon monoxide in the breath for non-smokers showed monoxide levels in the blood is only about less than 1%, second-hand smoke has monoxide levels in the blood ranging from 20-40 ppm, or 2-4% and for heavy smokers, levels monoxide in the blood can reach 30-40 ppm, or 5-7%.
Meanwhile, according to the results of research into the shisha smokers had higher levels of carbon monoxide in the blood reaches 40-70 ppm or 8-12%. Dr. Hilary Wareingm Directorate Control Collaborating Centre tour Tem-mangrove said he was surprised to hear the results of the study. “The mouth that was open to the level of loss, no single study that showed surprising results than shisha which turned out to be harmful to health,” he said.
With this research, the young people who are to gandrungi shisha as a lifestyle, something that delights, or simply follow the trend, it’s time to think again. Apparently shisha no “better” than cigarettes, then how important each is ngetrend developments around us do not have to follow but to be seen and have a thorough consideration, whether useful or not?
Congratulations to take the right decision to act against the shisha. If the shisha can provide its own pleasure, with low prices and can be enjoyed together, but give harmful effects on the end of that pleasure. Loving Health, is loving life. Congratulations to give life to your life by doing that is useful rather than vice versa.

Are there parts of the Bible that forbids us to smoke or smoke shisha? What are the reasons?

Drugs

Drug addicts can be helped by providing free heroin. Utrecht had ten years of local government to carry out experiments giving free heroin to addicts. Initially experiments were protests but now the voices of the opponents have no sound anymore. City of Utrecht now get the benefits because the addict is no longer interfere.

Both addicts and the medical officer believes positive. The ‘patient’ no longer need to steal to get heroin. Some of them have even been able to return to work.

The success of this trial have also resound in the political center of the Netherlands, Den Haag. Since 2006, heroin is registered as a drug. Last year the Dutch Parliament approved a law that allows the provision of heroin with medical supervision as one way of treatment for addicts.

Various negative impacts that come from heroin addicts in Utrecht, and also in other major cities, is lost. New addicts almost did not appear.

Clinic
In the Netherlands there are 17 clinics that provide heroin as the drug free of charge to addicts. In Rotterdam there is even a special nursing home to accommodate elderly addicts. These homes prior pantry gets a lot of criticism but now it is accepted.

Giving free heroin in Utrecht strictly regulated. When using heroin the patients monitored with cameras and wearing glasses. “They should not be carrying heroin out,” said Tinka Hille, clinic coordinator.

The addicts get heroin three times per day with an appropriate dose and must wear it at the clinic.

Chemicals
Heroin is pure chemicals produced pharmaceutical industry. With that, the clinic staff know for sure that the heroin used absolutely pure without mixture. The dose is also measured by sejeli possible. This is because the heroin used in the clinics is far more potent than heroin illegal.

Critics who claim that giving free heroin would invite new addicts to come to the clinic was not proven. “Addicts who can come here is they really have been very severe, which has repeatedly tried to join the healing clinics but always failed. The addicts do not want to be in a situation like that, ‘obviously Hille.

Another criticism aimed at the high cost of providing heroin, whether the benefits brought in balance with the cost?

‘The cost of free treatment per patient has reached 17 thousand Euros per year, “said Tinka Hille. ‘It seems a lot but if we see savings that can be done as the cost of care, treatment, court and criminal acts that may be addicts, still far profitable. Each year per one patient community can benefit almost 13 thousand euros per year. “

The Commission is investigating the trial giving free heroin to addicts also concluded that this treatment provides more benefits than costs.

Peace
Of all the addicts who participated in the Utrecht trial, none of which are involved in criminal cases. Certainty that they can regularly receive heroin to addicts is calming. They do not have to steal again and could even begin to think what they want to do in the future. Previously these addicts every day anxious to find a way to get heroin.

Three patients Tinka Hille now have a simple job. ‘Betty’ is one of them. He refused to be interviewed, ‘afraid’ she said. He now works as a janitor at the clinic where he received heroin. When the interview took place with Tinka Hille, Betty worked to clean the room. He then talked with the porter.

“See,” Hille said. “Like that purpose. Tranquility, both for the addict and those around him. “

What do you think about the thinking above?

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Makanan Terbaik Demi Tulang Kuat


Kenari

VIVAnews – Tulang merupakan bagian tubuh terpenting untuk menopang tubuh. Perawatan tulang sejak dini menjadi penting untuk mencegah terjadinya tulang rapuh atau osteoporosis.

Apalagi dewasa ini, osteoporosis tak hanya menyerang orang tua, tapi juga anak muda. Itu terjadi lantaran asupan nutrisi yang buruk untuk tulang. Ketahui makanan terbaik untuk tulang, seperti dikutip dari laman Times of India:

Susu

Susu adalah sumber penting kalsium serta vitamin D yang merupakan unsur penting untuk tulang. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produk olahan berbahan susu seperti keju dan es krim juga bisa menjadi alternatif. Hanya, produk turunan itu biasanya minim vitamin D.

Kacang-kacangan

Seperti biji-bijian, kacang-kacangan mengandung nutrisi penting untuk memperkuat tulang. Almonds, pistachios, dan biji bunga matahari yang kalsium bisa menjadi pilihan. Kandungan potasium dalam almond juga baik melindungi tubuh dari kehilangan kalsium yang merupakan unsur penting bagi tulang.

Ceker ayam

Nutrisi terbaik bagi tulang berasal adalah tulang. Ceker ayam mengandung hydroxyapatite, zat kapur, dan kolagen, yang secara alami membantu memperkuat tulang.

Kenari

Kandungan omega 3 di dalamnya memiliki banyak manfaat untuk tubuh. Kenari juga mengandung asam alphalinoleic yang bermanfaat memperkuat tulang.

Wortel

Sayuran ini mengandung betacryptoxanthin alpha-carotene dan beta-karoten yang baik untuk kesehatan tulang. Anda bisa menyantapnya mentah atau dalam bentuk salad yang menyegarkan. (pet)

 

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JANGAN KAMU KUATIR…BURUNG DI UDARA DIA PELIHARA


Tahukah anda lagu tersebut? Sebuah lagu sekolah minggu yang cukup riang, mudah dinyanyikan, tetapi apakah semudah itu menjalaninya? Apa yang membuat orang merasa kuatir? Mengapa Alkitab mengajarkan kita untuk tidak kuatir? Bagaimana kita bisa mengatasi rasa kuatir? Banyak bagian Alkitab yang bisa menuntun kita membicarakan topik ini, tetapi hari ini kita akan mengekspos Mat 6:25-34.

 

1.      Perikop ini berbicara tentang apa?

2.      Yesus mengajak kita untuk mengamati burung-burung di udara dan bunga di padang. Apa yang bisa kita pelajari dari ke dua mahluk hidup ini?

3.      Apa saja yang menjadi kekuatiran hidup orang di lingkungan Anda? Bagaimana dengan Anda sendiri? Apakah kekuatiran akan membantu anda? Bagaimana kekuatiran bisa merusak hidup anda?

4.      Bukankah hidup lebih penting dari makanan dan pakaian? Bagaimana pendapat anda?

5.      Hanya orang yang tidak mengenal Allah yang menguatirkan segala sesuatu. Bagaimana pendapat Anda?

6.      Sebutkan tiga alasan kenapa orang yang mengenal Allah seharusnya tidak kuatir?

7.      Apa artinya ‘carilah dahulu kerajaan Allah dan kebenaran-Nya’? Bagaimana hal ini bisa membuat Anda lepas dari kekuatiran? Dengan cara apa anda ‘mendahulukan mencari kerajaan Allah dan kebenaran-Nya’?

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15 Makanan pemicu sistem imun


Broccoli

Broccoli, Calabrese cultivar

Image via Wikipedia

Easy to find in the market and put into food, broccoli can boost immunity. One study reported a chemical in broccoli helps stimulate the immune system in mice. Plus, the broccoli is full of nutrients that protect your body from damage. Broccoli have vitamin A, vitamin C, and glutathione. Add some low fat cheese with a side dish to complement the B vitamins to boost immunity and vitamin D.

Elderberry

An ancient medicine, extracts of dark fruit that appears to block viral flu in test tube studies. And several small studies in humans show it may help you recover more quickly from the flu. But scientists caution that further study is needed. The fruit itself is rich in antioxidants and may also have the ability to fight inflammation.

Mushroom Buttons

Do not underestimate the poor nutrition of this fungus: this fungus has a selenium minerals and antioxidants. Low levels of selenium have been associated with increased risk of flu more severe. And B vitamins riboflavin and niacin, are found in fungi, play a role in healthy immune system. Animal studies also have shown the fungus to have antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-tumor effects

Acai Berry

as a “super food” along with products such as blueberries, acai berry dark color signal little high in antioxidants called anthocyanins. antioxidants can help your body fight aging and disease. Acai berry can be found most often in juice or smoothie form, or dried and mixed with granola.

Oyster

Aphrodisiac? Immune boosters? Probably both, thanks to the mineral zinc found in oysters. Low zinc levels have been associated with male infertility. And zinc seems to have some antiviral effects, although the researchers could not explain why. However, they know it is important to some of the tasks of the immune system including wound healing.

Watermelon

Juicy and refreshing, ripe watermelon also has many powerful antioxidant, glutathione. Known to help strengthen the immune system so it can fight infection, glutathione is found in red meat near the skin soft tersebut.Listen

Cabbage

It is a source of glutathione strengthening immunity. Try adding a cabbage from each variety (white, red, Chinese) in foods and beverages to add antioxidants and increase the nutritional value of your food.

Almonds

A number of almonds could sustain the immune system from the effects of stress. Suggested 1 / 4 cup carry nearly 50% of the total daily requirement of vitamin E, which helps boost the immune system. Almonds contain riboflavin and niacin, vitamin B that can help you bounce back from the effects of stress.

Grapefruit

have the amount of vitamin C is good. It has not been proven that you can easily get enough vitamin C through diet alone, without supplementation, to help treat colds and flu. However, these oranges are packed with flavonoids – natural chemical compounds that have been found to increase the activation of the immune system. Do not like grapefruit? Try regular oranges or tangerines.

Seeds of wheat (Wheat germ)

Wheat seed is part of the wheat seed that became the embryo of the wheat crop, so full of nutrients. Having zinc, antioxidants, and vitamin B between vitamins and other essential minerals. Wheat Seed also offers a good mix of fiber, protein, and some good fats. Add wheat germ to replace regular flour in baked goods and other recipes.

Low-Fat Yogurt

A cup every day can reduce your chances of getting the flu. Some researchers believe that yogurt may stimulate the immune system to fight disease. Also look for vitamin D. Recent studies have found an association between low vitamin D levels and increased risk of cold and flu.

Garlic

Garlic offers several antioxidants which fight invaders the immune system. Among the targets garlic is H. pylori, the bacterium associated with multiple ulcers and stomach cancer. Cooking Tip: Peel, cut and allow 15 to 20 minutes before cooking to activate the enzyme-boost immunity. 

Spinach

Known as “super foods,” nutrient-rich spinach. Folate, which helps your body produce new cells and repair of DNA. And fibers that contain antioxidants, like vitamin C, and more. raw or lightly cooked spinach to get the best benefits from your food.

Tea

Green or black? Both are loaded with polyphenols and flavonoids. Antioxidants find free radicals that damage cells and destroy them. Caffeinated or decaffeinated will work equally well.

Sweet potato

Such as carrots, sweet potatoes have the antioxidant beta-carotene, which swept the damaging free radicals. Sweet potatoes are also rich in vitamin A, which is associated with slowing the aging process and can reduce the risk of some cancers.

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Berpikir kritis, kreatif dan komprehensif Bab 6 kelas 10


Kompetensi dasar:

Mengalami proses pertumbuhan sebagai pribadi yang dewasa yang memiliki karakter yang kokoh dengan pola pikir yang komprehensif dalam segala aspek

 

Indikator:

1.      Memahami arti berpikir kritis, kreatif dan komprehensif

2.      Memahami pentingnya berpikir kritis, kreatif dan komprehensif

3.      Mengetahui cara-cara mengembangkan diri dalam berpikir kritis, kreatif dan komprehensif

 

Pengantar

Bab terdahulu siswa telah belajar mengenal berbagai pola pandang dunia yang ada saat ini. Untuk mengetahui mana pola pandang yang benar dalam artian sesuai dengan tolok ukur Alkitab, maka siswa perlu mengembangkan pola berpikir kritis, kreatif dan komprehensif. Dengan demikian, diharapkan siswa tidak mudah tergerus oleh arus jaman, sebaliknya mampu bersikap seperti Daniel, Yusuf, Yesus dll.

Berpikir adalah kemampuan meletakkan hubungan antara bagian-bagian pengetahuan. Dalam belajar, orang dihadapkan pada suatu masalah yang harus dipecahkan. Masalah harus dipecahkan melalui operasi mental, khususnya menggunakan konsep dan kaidah serta metode-metode  tertentu.  Belajar berpikir sangat diperlukan selama belajar di sekolah atau di perguruan tinggi.

Macam taraf berfikir yaitu : taraf berpikir pengetahuan (belajar reseptif/menerima), komprehensif Berpikir dalam konsep belajar pengertian), aplikasi (berpikir menerapkan), analisis dan sistesis (berpikir menguraikan dan menggabungkan), evaluasi (berpikir kreatif atau memecahkan masalah).

 

Memahami arti berpikir kritis, kreatif dan komprehensif

 

Berpikir kritis:

Berpikir kritis adalah proses mental untuk menganalisis atau mengevaluasi informasi. Informasi tersebut dapat didapatkan dari hasil pengamatan, pengalaman, akal sehat atau komunikasi.

Berpikir kritis mencakup ketrampilan menafsirkan dan menilai pengamatan, informasi, dan argumentasi. Berpikir kritis meliputi pemikiran dan penggunaan alasan yang logis, mencakup ketrampilan membandingkan, mengklasifikasi, melakukan pengurutan (sekuensi), menghubung-kan sebab dan akibat, mendeskripsikan pola, membuat analogi, menyusun rangkaian, memberi alasan secara deduktif dan induktif, peramalan, perencanaan, perumusan hipotesis, dan penyam-paian kritik. Berpikir kritis mencakup penentuan tentang makna dan kepentingan dari apa yang dilihat atau dinyatakan, penilaian argumen, pertimbangan apakah kesimpulan ditarik berda-sarkan bukti-bukti pendukung yang memadai.

Berpikir kritis tidak sama dengan berdebat atau mengkritisi orang lain. Kata “kritis” terhadap suatu argumen tidak identik dengan “ketidaksetujuan” terhadap suatu argumen atau pandangan orang lain. Penilaian kritis bisa saja dilakukan terhadap suatu argumen yang bagus, sebab pemikiran kritis bersifat netral dan tidak emosional.

Tentunya berpikir kritis tidak menjamin seseorang akan mencapai kesimpulan yang tepat. Hal-hal yang menghalanginya antara lain:

1.      tidak  memiliki seluruh informasi yang relevan. Informasi yang penting mungkin belum ditemukan atau informasi tersebut mungkin tidak akan dapat ditemukan.

2.      pemihakan (bias) dari seseorang dapat saja menghalangi pengumpulan dan penilaian informasi secara efektif.

Mengatasi Pemihakan (Bias)

Untuk mengurangi pemihakan, beberapa cara harus dilakukan jika seseorang ingin berpikir kritis. Jangan tanyakan “Bagaimana hal ini bertentangan dengan pendapat saya?”, tapi tanyakanlah “Apa artinya ini?”

1)      Jangan lakukan penilaian terlalu dini pada tahap pengumpulan informasi

2)      Anda harus sadar terhadap kekurangan anda sendiri dan orang lain dengan cara:

a)       menerima bahwa setiap orang memiliki pemihakan di bawah sadar (pemihakan secara refleks)

b)       bersikap tanpa ego

c)       jangan terlebih dahulu mempunyai pendapat awal

d)       sadar bahwa setiap orang memiliki kelemahan masing-masing

3)      Gunakan metoda sokrates untuk mengevaluasi sebuah argumen dengan menanyakan pertanyaan terbuka. Sebagai contoh adalah:

a)       Apa yang anda maksud dengan __________?

b)       Bagaimana anda dapat berkesimpulan begitu?

c)       Mengapa anda berpendapat bahwa itu adalah benar?

d)       Dimana anda mendapatkan informasi tersebut?

e)       Apa yang terjadi jika anda ternyata salah?

f)        Dapatkah anda memberikan dua buah sumber yang tidak setuju dengan anda dan jelaskan mengapa?

g)       Mengapa hal ini penting?

h)       Bagaimana saya dapat mengetahui bahwa anda mengatakan yang sebenarnya?

i)         Apa penjelasan alternatif dari fenomena ini?

3.      Berkesimpulan.

Janganlah membuat asumsi secara berlebihan, dengan kata lain: jangan memperumit masalah anda. Berpikir kritis adalah sebuah proses yang tidak akan selesai. Seseorang dapat mencapai sebuah kesimpulan tentatif berdasarkan evaluasi dari informasi yang ada. Tetapi, jika ada informasi baru yang ditemukan maka proses evaluasi harus dijalankan kembali.

Pendidikan di Indonesia tidak mengedepankan faktor berpikir kritis ini, padahal ini adalah sesuatu yang sangat penting. Pendidikan ini jauh lebih penting daripada sekadar membandingkan ‘kapasitas otak’ atau kemampuan menghafal dari siswa-siswi sekolah.

 

Seorang yang berpikir kritis akan mengkaji ulang apakah keyakinan dan pengetahuan yang dimiliki atau dikemukakan orang lain logis atau tidak. Demikian juga seorang yang berpikir kritis tidak akan menelan begitu saja kesimpulan-kesimpulan atau hipotesis yang dikemukakan dirinya sendiri atau orang lain.

 

Seorang pemikir kritis memiliki sejumlah karakteristik sebagai berikut:

1. Mengemukakan pertanyaan-pertanyaan dan masalah penting, merumuskannya dengan jelas dan teliti

2. Memunculkan ide-ide baru yang berguna dan relevan untuk melakukan tugas. Pemikiran kritis memiliki peran penting untuk menilai manfaat ide-ide baru, memilih ide-ide yang terbaik, atau memodifikasi ide-ide jika perlu

3. Mengumpulkan dan menilai informasi-informasi yang relevan, dengan menggunakan gagasan abstrak untuk menafsirkannya dengan efektif

4. Menarik kesimpulan dan solusi dengan alasan yang kuat, bukti yang kuat, dan mengujinya dengan menggunakan kriteria dan standar yang relevan

5. Berpikir terbuka dengan menggunakan berbagai alternatif sistem pemikiran, sembari mengenali, menilai, dan mencari hubungan-hubungan antara semua asumsi, implikasi, akibat-akibat praktis

6. Mampu mengatasi kebingungan, mampu membedakan antara fakta, teori, opini, dan keyakinan

7. Mengkomunikasikan dengan efektif kepada orang lain dalam upaya menemukan solusi atas masalah-masalah kompleks, tanpa terpengaruh oleh pemikiran orang lain tentang topik yang bersangkutan

8. Jujur terhadap diri sendiri, menolak manipulasi, memegang kredibilitas dan integritas ilmiah, dan secara intelektual independen, imparsial, netral

 

Mengembangkan sifat berpikir kritis

Salah satu cara yang penting untuk mengembangkan sifat-sifat berpikir kritis adalah mempelajari seni untuk menunda penarikan kesimpulan argumen. Caranya adalah menerapkan orientasi persepsi ketimbang menarik kesimpulan final terlalu dini. Sebagai contoh, ketika membaca sebuah novel, menonton film, mengikuti diskusi atau dialog, hindari kecenderungan untuk menghakimi atau menarik kesimpulan tetap.

Untuk melatih berpikir kritis, seorang perlu menyadari dan menghindari adanya kecenderungan untuk melakukan kesalahan-kesalahan yang menyebabkan orang tidak berpikir kritis, antara lain sebagai berikut:

1. Dalam suatu argumen terlalu mengeneralisasi posisi atau keadaan. Sebagai contoh, dalam suatu argumen terdapat kecenderungan untuk mengira semua orang tahu, padahal tidak setiap orang tahu. Demikian juga mengira semua orang tidak tahu, padahal ada orang yang tahu. Pemikir kritis berhati-hati dalam menggunakan kata “semua”, atau “setiap”. Lebih aman menggunakan kata “sebagian besar”, atau “beberapa”.

2. Menyangka bahwa setiap orang memiliki bias (keberpihakan) di bawah sadar, lalu mempertanyakan pemikiran refleksif yang dilakukan orang lain. Pemikir kritis harus bersedia untuk menerima kebenaran rgument orang lain. Perdebatan tentang rgument bisa saja menarik, tetapi tidak selalu berarti bahwa rgument sendiri benar.

3. Mengadopsi pendapat yang ego-sensitif. Nilai-nilai, emosi, keinginan, dan pengalaman seorang mempengaruhi keyakinan dan kemampuan orang untuk memiliki pemikiran yang terbuka. Pemikir kritis harus menying-kirkan kesalahan ini dan mempertimbangkan untuk menerima informasi dari luar

4. Mengingat kembali keyakinan lama yang dipercaya dengan kuat tetapi sekarang dittolak

5. Kecenderungan untuk berpikir kelompok, suatu keadaan di mana keyakinan seorang dibentuk oleh pemikiran orang-orang diseki-tarnya ketimbang apa yang ia sendiri alami atau saksikan

 

Berpikir kreatif:

 

Definisi kreativitas tergantung pada segi penekanannya, kreativitas dapat didefinisikan kedalam empat jenis dimensi sebagai Four P’s Creativity, yaitu dimensi Person,Proses, Press dan Product sebagai berikut :

1. Definisi kreativitas yang berfokus pada segi pribadi.

Definisi pada dimensi person adalah upaya mendefinisikan kreativitas yang berfokus pada individu atau person dari individu yang dapat disebut kreatif.

Guilford, 1950 dalam Reni Akbar-Hawadi dkk, 2001, menerangkan bahwa kreativitas merupakan kemampuan atau kecakapan yang ada dalam diri seseorang, hal ini erat kaitannya dengan bakat. Sedangkan Hulbeck, 1945 dikutip Utami Munandar, 1999, menerangkan bahwa tindakan kreatif muncul dari keunikan keseluruhan kepribadian dalam interaksi dengan lingkungannya.

2.      Kreativitas dalam dimensi Process
Definisi pada dimensi proses upaya mendefinisikan kreativitas yang berfokus pada proses berpikir sehingga memunculkan ide-ide unik atau kreatif. Utami Munandar menerangkan bahwa kreativitas adalah sebuah proses atau kemampuan yang mencerminkan kelancaran, keluwesan (fleksibititas), dan orisinalitas dalam berpikir, serta kemampuan untuk mengelaborasi (mengembangkan, memperkaya, memperinci), suatu gagasan. Pada definisi ini lebih menekankan pada aspek proses perubahan (inovasi dan variasi).

Wallas (1976) dalam Reni Akbar-Hawadi dkk, 2001 mengemukakan empat tahap dalam proses kreatif yaitu :
Tahap Persiapan; adalah tahap pengumpulan informasi atau data sebagai bahan untuk memecahkan masalah. Dalam tahap ini terjadi percobaan-percobaan atas dasar berbagai pemikiran kemungkinan pemecahan masalah yang dialami.
Inkubasi; adalah tahap dieraminya proses pemecahan masalah dalam alam prasadar. Tahap ini berlangsung dalan waktu yang tidak menentu, bisa lama (berhari-hari, berbulan-bulan, bertahun-tahun), dan bisa juga hanya sebentar (hanya beberapa jam, menit bahkan detik). Dalam tahap ini ada kemungkinan terjadi proses pelupaan terhadap konteksnya, dan akan teringat kembali pada akhir tahap pengeraman dan munculnya tahap berikutnya.
Tahap Iluminasi; adalah tahap munculnya inspirasi atau gagasan-gagasan untuk memecahkan masalah. Dalam tahap ini muncul bentuk-bentuk cetusan spontan, seperti dilukiskan oleh Kohler dengan kata-kata now, I see itu yang kurang lebihnya berarti “oh ya”.
Tahap Verifikasi; adalah tahap munculnya aktivitas evaluasi tarhadap gagasan secara kritis, yang sudah mulai dicocokkan dengan keadaan nyata atau kondisi realita.

Dari dua pendapat ahli diatas memandang kreativitas sebagai sebuah proses yang terjadi didalam otak manusia dalam menemukan dan mengembangkan sebuah gagasan baru yang lebih inovatif dan variatif (divergensi berpikir).

3.      Definisi Kreativitas dalam dimensi Press

menekankan faktor press atau dorongan, baik dorongan internal diri sendiri berupa keinginan dan hasrat untuk mencipta atau bersibuk diri secara kreatif, maupun dorongan eksternal dari lingkungan sosial dan psikologis. Definisi Simpson (1982) dalam S. C. U. Munandar 1999, merujuk pada aspek dorongan internal dengan rumusannya sebagai berikut :

Mengenai “press” dari lingkungan, ada lingkungan yang menghargai imajinasi dan fantasi, dan menekankan kreativitas serta inovasi. Kreativitas juga kurang berkembang dalam kebudayaan yang terlalu menekankan tradisi, dan kurang terbukanya terhadap perubahan atau perkembangan baru.

4.      Definisi Kreativitas dalam dimensi Product mendefinisikan kreativitas yang berfokus pada produk atau apa yang dihasilkan oleh individu baik sesuatu yang baru/original atau sebuah elaborasi/penggabungan yang inovatif. Definisi yang berfokus pada produk kreatif menekankan pada orisinalitas, seperti yang dikemukakan oleh Baron (1969) yang menyatakan bahwa kreatifitas adalah kemampuan untuk menghasilkan/menciptakan sesuatu yang baru. Begitu pula menurut Haefele (1962) dalam Munandar, 1999; yang menyatakan kreativitas adalah kemampuan untuk membuat kombinasi-kombinasi baru yang mempunyai makna sosial. Dari dua definisi ini maka kreatifitas tidak hanya membuat sesuatu yang baru tetapi mungkin saja kombinasi dari sesuatu yang sudah ada sebelumnya.

Dari berbagai pengertian yang dikemukakan oleh para ahli untuk menjelaskan makna dari kreativitas yang dikaji dari empat dimensi yang memberikan definisi saling melengkapi. Untuk itu kita dapat membuat berbagai kesimpulan mengenai definisi tentang kreativitas dengan acuan beberapa pendapat yang dikemukakan oleh para ahli.
Dari beberapa uraian mengenai definisi kreativitas yang dikemukakan diatas peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa :
“Kreativitas adalah proses konstruksi ide yang orisinil (asli), bermanfaat, variatif (bernilai seni) dan inovatif (berbeda/lebih baik)”.

 

Berpikir komprehensif:

Berpikir komprehensif berlawanan dengan berpikir parsial. Berpikir komprehensif adalah berpikir secara menyeluruh, mempertimbangkan berbagai aspek dan dari berbagai sudut pandang.

 

Studi kasus:

 

Gio adalah seorang anak remaja, bersekolah di SMU Citra Unggul. Cukup beruntung ia bisa menikmati pendidikan di sekolah tersebut. Orang tua Gio mau berjerih payah bekerja untuk biaya pendidikannya. Tetapi, seperti banyak remaja masa kini, Gio mengalami masalah keengganan dalam belajar. Ia hanya belajar jika besok ada ulangan.  Itupun karena ada teman yang mengingatkannya. Aktifitas sehari-hari yang ia lakukan setelah pulang sekolah adalah duduk berjam-jam di depan komputer bermain game online, facebook, twitter, chatting, atau pergi bersama dengan teman-temannya. Asyik dengan dunianya sendiri, Gio sering tidur larut malam, sehingga di sekolah ia sering mengantuk. Orang tua dan guru sudah sering mengingatkan dan memberikan teguran, tetapi ia merasa bahwa selama ini ia sudah melakukan hal yang benar. Bagaimana pendapatmu tentang Gio? Menurutmu, dengan cara hidup yang demikian, apakah ia akan berhasil di masa mendatang? Apa saja untung rugi yang dialaminya? Siapa saja yang diuntungkan dan dirugikan oleh kebiasaan hidupnya?

Dari studi kasus ini, apa yang kamu dapatkan mengenai cara berpikir komprehensif? Studi kasus ini hanya merupakan salah satu contoh kasus kehidupan yang sering kamu hadapi, masih banyak kasus-kasus lain yang mungkin bermunculan dalam kehidupanmu. Berpikir kreatif, kritis dan komprehensif bukan sesuatu yang bersifat instant, tetapi memerlukan latihan. Mulailah belajar berpikir secara demikian ketika kamu menghadapi suatu masalah, agar kamu bertumbuh menjadi manusia yang semakin dewasa dalam pola pikir.

 

 

Berikut ini adalah contoh beberapa tokoh Alkitab dalam menghadapi permasalahan mereka. Tinjaulah cara berpikir mereka

 

1. Hawa ketika bertemu dengan ular (Kej 3: 1-6) ……………………………………….

2. Dua belas pengintai (Bil 13:17-20, 27-31) ……………………………………………

3. Ayub (Ayub 2:9-10; 3: 25-26) …………………………………………………………

4. Daniel (Dan 1:5-8) …………………………………………………………………….

5. Yusuf (Mat 1:18-20) …………………………………………………………………..

6. Pilatus (Mat 27:23-26) …………………………………………………………………

7. Salomo (1Raj 3:23-27) …………………………………………………………………

 

Hal-hal apa yang bisa menghalangi seseorang berpikir kreatif, kritis dan komprehensif?

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6 Makanan yang Bikin Kenyang Lebih Cepat Kenyang


 

A full English breakfast, consisting of eggs, ...

Image via Wikipedia

 


KOMPAS.com – Here are six super foods that can help us lock our mouth from our mistakes to overeat and guaranteed fast filling.

1. Apple One medium apple contains 95 calories and 4 grams of fiber. The latest research, published in the Journal of Nutrition suggests us to improve our daily fiber intake for body weight did not continue to soar.

2. Eating oatmeal breakfast with foods that are slow release carbohydrates or had low GI, such as oatmeal, 3 hours before you exercise will help the process of burning more fat.

Mengasup low GI foods will not make our blood sugar soaring as high as eating high GI foods, like white bread. And the result, levels of insulin in the blood did not go up high.

3. Research soup inserted in the Journal Appetite, showed people who started eating with a bowl of vegetable soup, will mengasup calories 20 percent lower than their principal food.

4. Mushrooms A study reported that people eat mushrooms as an appetizer, would feel the same satisfaction when they eat hindangan made from cows. Only the content of calories and less fat.

5. Eggs For people who are doing a diet, breakfast with eggs will make them feel full longer. Plus, it can crush 2 times more fat than those consuming the same amount of calories of bread. Not just for breakfast, the presence of eggs in the salad will be making healthy snacks and filling.

6. Mengunyahlah almonds more to hunger. Here’s what researchers concluded from a study included in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. They ask participants to chew about 113 grams of almonds as many as 10, 20, or 40 times.

Volunteers who chewed most (40 times) to feel full longer. This is due, chewing almonds will release more fat contained in the almonds for more, and eventually will be able to lock the trigger hunger hormone, “says Rick Mattes, PhD, RD, professor of foods and nutrition at Purdue University. (Prevention of Indonesia)

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Ex-radical said: No Peace in Qoran


http://dailyitem.com/0100_news/x921681689/Ex-radical-No-peace-in-Quran

read, and what do you think???

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The Beauty of Bangka Island and it’s Beaches..


Tanjung Pesona Beach

Parai Beach

Matras Beach

Penyusuk Beach

Parai Beach View from Hotel

Bangka Island, an island that holds the lead in the belly of their ground, even to the sea-the sea is full of tin. If we see from the plane, the earth looks Bangka island torn apart in several locations. Tin mines were scattered everywhere, both legal and an unclear status.

Behind the houses, seen also shred-shred search excavator tin. Bangka Tin breath is the breath, because until now it remains a commodity lead the most seeded Bangka.Penambangan tin is not only done by PT Timah, but is done by small-scale miners, and even has seen players from China who come to enjoy the wealth of tin Bangka island.

Along the beaches in the Pacific, then look how the earth is filled with rows of magnificent beaches. Clean sea, beautiful beaches into a composition that makes anyone feel at home who stepped ashore.

For those who never watch a movie somewhere over the rainbow, would have understood that there are beautiful beaches on the island of Bangka Belitung this. Soft sand combined with chunks of boulders, which stand out in some beach, makes it convenient when I want to play sand or lounging on the beach, enjoying the sea breeze caress that touches all the pores of our skin.

Unlike Parangtritis beach in Yogyakarta, which is also beautiful, the waves on the coast of the island of Bangka is such a friendly wave. A choice of water sports are fun and have a small risk compared to the existing beaches along the south coast of Java island.

If you want to dive, then the cost is only 500 thousand per person. The cost is already included the cost of training briefing, boat fee and expenses during the dive instructor companion. Unfortunately, we have to find 4 people diving again, so that the ship would take us to the dive sites. You could say the cost of “diving” This is 2.5 million per boat, maximum of 5 persons.

One of the beach closest to the location of the hotel is Parai beach, which is in contact directly with the Hotel Parai. There is a sensation that should be felt, if you want to feel the dinner on the beach, in the midst of chunks of rock that juts into the sea. That’s “The rock island grill and bar”.

Rock Cafe View

Rock Cafe Parai Beach

Menu food is standard seafood menu, but there are additional menu that makes us tingle to try it, “gado-gado”!. Bumbu gado-gadonya very fitting for the tastes of the tongue “wong Yogya”, sweet and not spicy. Of course if we want spicy should give special orders.

Hospitality typical of the Pacific islanders [original] of course more comfortable travelers who make day trips to Bangka. They were not affected by the financial crisis that occurred in America, even though they feel the interest of miners [Petty] slightly decreased due to falling tin prices. But that does not make the smile ran away from their faces.

Just imagine if we see Dewi Sandra, Bangka-born celebrity, who was always smiling, then so should we imagine the friendliness of the Pacific islanders [although not all the residents of the Pacific as beautiful as  Dewi Sandra].

Some indigenous people I met and I took Bangka chat, all give the impression that is similar to typical “wong Jowo”, patiently, “nrimo” [accept what is] and not “adventurous” [do not have the desire that the various].

So for anyone who wants to enjoy the beauty of the island of Bangka, prepare yourself to feel the sensation of the beautiful rocky beaches, soft sand with a bonus of friendly people.

That’s how God created the beauty on this earth. Praise we just prayed to God, the Creator, the Most Fair. Hopefully we can become a good servant grateful.

for further information, feel free to contact me to honglan712@yahoo.com

or join to my facebook: rttmalang@gmail.com

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